Her innumerable cultural aspects

As we’ve seen over the last several blogs, down the ages the concept of the Great Mother has naturally and ever so logically become divided, and then sub-divided on and on into an essentially infinite number of aspects covering every conceivable force of nature; but how many realize that throughout the world, her figure is actually found to have far more cultural aspects than natural ones!

Indeed, in her ‘cultural Tree’, she’s commonly credited with—well here, take a look.

  • Rabeona: the Roman goddess who protected children the first time they left their parents’ home alone
  • Abere: a Melanesian cannibal-goddess useful for keeping children close to home
  • Abuk: a Sudanese goddess of gardens
  • Acchupta: a Jain Indian goddess of learning
  • Accla: the Incan goddesses of war
  • Achtland: a deified Celtic queen who apparently no mortal man could sexually satisfy, and so she finally took a giant from the faery realm as her mate
  • Aclla Cuna: the Incan goddess of weaving
  • Aebhel: an ancient Irish goddess of wisdom who reportedly commanded that men bow to women’s sexual wishes, and held a daily midnight court to hear arguments about whether or not they were doing so
  • Aecetia: the Roman goddess of fair trade and honest merchants
  • Aceso: an ancient Greek goddess held to cure sickness and heal wounds
  • Aegle: the ancient Greek goddess who brought radiant good health
  • Ahat: an early Egyptian cow goddess
  • Ahia Njoku: the Nigerian yam goddess
  • Aidin: a Celtic goddess of sexual desire
  • Aasith: an ancient Egyptian goddess of the desert hunt and war
  • Adeona: the Roman goddess who guided children back to their parents’ home after school
  • Aedos: the Roman goddess of modesty, reverence, and respect
  • Ahnt kai: a divine Mexican protectress of women and children
  • Ai Tupua’i: the Polynesian war goddess
  • Aife: an ancient Scottish war deity who was held to command a legion of fierce horsewomen and run a school for female warriors
  • Aine: an ancient Irish war goddess
  • Aittsamka: a Bella Coola goddess of teaching
  • Akewa: the Toba war goddess
  • Akhushtal: the Mayan goddess of childbirth
  • Akonadi: a West African goddess of justice
  • Akusaa: an early Egyptian war goddess
  • Akycha: the Inuit Alaskan war goddess
  • Alaghom Naom: the Mayan goddess of consciousness, intellect, wisdom, and education; traditionally credited by the Mayans with giving them their ability to think, reason, an create a calendar for marking time
  • Alaisiagae: a pair of Celtic war goddesses
  • Alala: the Roman goddess of the war cry
  • Alalahe: Polynesian sex deity
  • Ame-No-Uzume: the Shinto Japanese goddess of dancing
1. Ame-No-Uzume
  • Amn: an ancient Egyptian goddess of justice
  • Amutnen: an early Egyptian cow goddess
  • An Zu: an ancient Syrian goddess said to spread chaos
  • Anahita: ancient Persian deity of rivers and fertility who also came to be associated with learning, wisdom, health, healing, and apparently due to her association with this last, war inasmuch as Persian soldiers would pray to her for their survival before entering battle; among the most popular and widely venerated deities in Persian religion, there were more temples and shrines dedicated to her than to any other deity
2. Anahita
  • Anat: a Mesopotamian war goddess
  • Anaulikutsaix: the Polynesian goddess of wisdom
  • Andrasta: a Roman war goddess to whom the real-life British warrior queen Boudicca is reported to have nonetheless prayed and offered various sacrifices before her many battles against theoccupying Romans
  • Annallja Tu Bari: the Sudanese goddess of sexual desire
  • Annapurna: the Hindu Indian food goddess
  • Anna Kuari: the Uraon Indian agricultural goddess; as with many of the world’s agricultural peoples, until fairly recently the Uraons believed that every spring the Earth-mother required new blood, or the sacrificing of a worthy human in order to replenish her power of procreation and make the earth fruitful again; such victims typically had to be youthful, either the offspring of a previous victim or someone purchased from an impoverished family specifically for the deed, and were kept for years as a holy figure before their death; at which time, following a few days of spring festivities, the victim would usually be strangled and dismembered—or in some instances, simply cut up alive, with the severed parts then planted in the fields as fertilizer.
  • Annona: the goddess responsible for supplying grain to ancient Rome
  • Antevorta: a Roman goddess of childbirth, invoked by pregnant woman for protection against the dangers involved in giving birth
  • Aphrodite: the ancient Greek goddess of sexual desire and pleasure
3. Aphrodite rebuffing satyr with her sandal (aided by her infant son Eros)
National Museum, Athens
  • Arachne: the ancient Greek goddess of weaving
  • Ardat lili: a Babylonian goddess who was said to come out at night looking to make trouble, mainly by enticing boys and young men to masturbate and then turning their ejaculate into demons
  • Arstat: a Persian goddess of order
  • Arthapratisamvit: the Buddhist goddess of logical analysis
  • Artio: the Swiss harvest goddess
  • Asa Poorna: the Chohan Indian goddess of happiness
  • Asherat: a Phoenecian goddess of marriage and fidelity
  • Ashi: a Hindu goddess of wisdom
  • Asnan: an early Mesopotamian grain goddess
  • Astarte: a Western Semitic goddess of love, sexuality, prostitution, fertility, the moon, and war
  • Aso: the Ethiopian goddess of justice
  • Atargatis: ancient Syrian Great Mother with major cults at Khirbet Tannur, where she was worshipped as the agricultural deity in no less than nine separate variations, and at Khirbet Brak, where she was associated with the sea and dolphins; originally a fertility deity associated with an important lake in northern Syria, over time she came to be regarded as the ancestral Mother and divine protectress of the Syrian royal house, as well as the founder of the country’s social and religious life; as noted previously, the Romans called her Dea Syria, ‘Divine Syria’—as though she and the country were really one and the same
  • Athena: the ancient Greek goddess of intellect, reason, science, wisdom, and strategic warfare; divine protectress of Athens, for whom the city is named
4 Athena
  • Atina: the Arikara Sioux corn goddess
  • Auge: an ancient Spanish goddess of the domestic hearth
  • Autyeb: an ancient Egyptian goddess of happiness
  • Ayaba: the Dahomean goddess of the domestic hearth
  • Axomama: the Incan potato goddess
  • Aya: a Mesopotamian war goddess
  • Baalat: the Phoenecian queen of all the goddesses and divine patroness of books, libraries and writers
  • Badb: an ancient Irish war goddess
  • Ban Naomha: an ancient Irish war goddess
  • Banbha: a Celtic war goddess
  • Bast: the ancient Egyptian war goddess and ultimate protector of the pharaoh; usually depicted as a fierce cat
  • Bastet: the ancient Egyptian goddess of fertility, love, and sexual desire
5. Bastet
  • Bat: an ancient Egyptian cow goddess
  • Beiwe: the Saami Finnland war goddess
  • Belit Seri: the Babylonian goddess of justice and fairness
  • Bellona: a Roman war goddess whose priests would perform frenzied dances in her temple prior to battle, gash themselves in the end, and then leave their blood on her altar as a sacrifice
  • Bendis: the Thracian war goddess
  • Benzi-Ten: the Japanese goddess of language, eloquence, and the arts
  • Bera Pennu: the Khond Indian agricultural goddes, whose worshippers believed her to require a springtime human sacrifice
  • Bertha: the ancient German goddess of the spinning wheel
  • Bharat Mata: the goddess whom Hindus hold to be the mother of India
  • Bhumi Devata: the Hindu goddess of all vegetation
  • Biliku: a Native North American goddess of story-telling
  • Birrahgnooloo: an aboriginal Australian goddess reveredby several clans as the mother of all living things; traditionally said to have moved through the early world planting all its vegetation, creating the creatures who would subsequently feed upon it, and finally breathing life into them
  • Blid: a Norse goddess of happiness
  • Bo Dhu: the ancient Irish ‘Black Cow’ goddess
  • Bo Find: the ancient Irish ‘White Cow’ goddess
  • Bodua: a Celtic war goddess
  • Bomong: the Minyong war goddess
  • Brighid: a Celtic goddess of education
  • Bubona: a Roman cattle goddess
  • Cakresvari: a Jain Indian goddess of learning
  • Calliope: the ancient Greek muse of epic poetry
  • Caireen: a divine ancient Irish protectress of mothers and their children
  • Cardea: a Roman goddess associated with health
  • Carmenta: the Roman goddess of midwifery
  • Carna: the Roman goddess who presided over the heart and other organs
  • Cathubodua: the Pan-Celtic war goddess
  • Cebhfhionn: an ancient Irish goddess of inspiration who was said to endlessly fill her drinking vessel from the well of knowledge
  • Cels: the Etruscan goddess who made the grain grow tall
  • Centeocihuatl: the Aztec corn goddess
  • Ceres: the Roman grain goddess from whose name the word ‘cereal’ is derived
6. Ceres
  • Cerridwen: an ancient Welsh goddess of agriculture and knowledge
  • Chakwaina Okya: the Zuni goddess of childbirth
  • Chang Yong: a Chinese goddess of justice
  • Chantico: the Aztec goddess of the domestic hearth
  • Chiang: Chinese a goddess of agriculture
  • Chicomecoatl: the Aztec corn goddess; her festival was held in September, when a young girl, having taken on the role of the deity for a period of time during the celebration, was decapitated on a heap of maize and her blood then collected in a bowl before being poured over a wooden figurine of the goddess, after which her body was flayed and her skin worn by a frenzied, dancing priest
  • Chie: a Chibcha Ecuadorian fun-loving goddess
  • Chih Nii: a Chinese goddess of spinning
  • Chih Nü: a Chinese goddess of weaving
  • Chokmah: an ancient Spanish goddess of wisdom
  • Chuang Mu: the Chinese goddess of the bedroom and sexual delights
  • Chunda: Buddhist goddess of happiness
  • Clio: the ancient Greek muse of history
  • Cloacina: the Roman goddess of sewer workers
  • Cocamama: the Incan goddess of the coca plant
  • Concordia: the Roman goddess of hamony, justice, and peace
  • Copia a Roman goddess of prosperity
  • Cotys: Phyrigian goddess who presided over debauchery
  • Cunina: the Roman goddess who protected infants still in the cradle
  • Cybele: Phrygia’s national deity, and at least by the time that the ancient Greeks came upon her, its only remaining female deity; originally associated with mountains, fertility, and wild animals—she was commonly portrayed with a pair of mountain lions flanking her throne—her cult was adopted by Greek colonists in Asia Minor and soon afterward spread to mainland Greece, where it was partially assimilated into those of the Greek Earth-mother Gaia and Agriculture-mother Demeter, while she herself came to be evoked as the divine protectress of some of that country’s more important city-states, such as Athens; later, she was adopted by the Romans, in whose land she became widely known as Magna Mater, meaning ‘Great Mother’, while her cult came to be recognized as an important ally in Rome’s military campaigns to establish a hegemony over the Mediterranean world—after which, a new, Romanized version of her cult, now mainly focusing on her as a war-deity, ultimately spread throughout the Roman Empire
7. Cybele
  • Dabeiba: the Antioquía Columbian goddess revered as the one who taught people agriculture, how to weave baskets, mats, fire-fans, and pots, do body-painting, and dye their teeth black
  • Daena: the Persian goddess of insight
  • Dahud Ahes: ancient British deity of debauchery and earthly pleasures
  • Dakini Guru: a Tibetan goddess of teaching
  • Damona: an ancient French cow goddess
  • Dashizhi: a Chinese goddess of knowledge
  • Demeter: the ancient Greek goddess of agriculture
  • Deohako: the Seneca people’s collective name for the agriculture-mothers three daughters, Corn, Beans, and Squash
  • Devala: the Hindu goddess of music
  • Devananda: a Jain Indian goddess of happiness
  • Dewi Sri: the Balinese rice goddess
  • Diablesse: the Haitian goddess of justice
  • Diana: ancient Roman deity variously associated with the moon, virginity, chastity, fertility, childbirth, wild mountain forests, hunting, and the protection of young animals; when the Romans came to rule Greece, where the ancient Greeks had a similar deity called Artemis, rather than build Diana a local temple such as the one that she had on the Aventine Hill back in Rome—a hill where deities imported from foreign lands were concentrated—her cult simply took over Artemis’ great temple at Ephesus: at four hundred fifty feet long by two hundred twenty-five wide and sixty high, with the roof supported by no less than one hundred twenty-seven columns, at the time regarded as one of the ‘Seven Wonders of the World’
8. Diana
  • Diang Shilluk: the Sudanese cow goddess
  • Dike: the ancient Greek goddess of justice
  • Dil Ki Baat: an Indian goddess of wisdom
  • Djigonasee: the Huron goddess of justice, fairness, and peace
  • Discordia: the Roman goddess associated with dissent, strife, and chaos
  • Diwali: the Hindu goddess of happiness and merriment
  • Dorje Naljorma: the Tibetan goddess of happiness
  • Dou Shen: a Chinese goddess of justice
  • Dugnai: an ancient Irish goddess of baking, kneading, yeast, and malt liquor
  • Duttur: a Sumerian sheep goddess
  • Dziva: an African goddess of justice
  • Ececheira: an ancient Greek goddess of armistice and peace
  • Ehecatl: the Aztec goddess of crafts
  • Eileithyia: the ancient Greek goddess of childbirth and spinning
  • Eir: a Norse goddess associated with medical skills and teaching
  • Eirene: the ancient Greek goddess of peace
  • Ekajata: the Buddhist goddess of good fortune and happiness
  • Ekineba: an African goddess of teaching
  • Eleos: an ancient Greek goddess of peace
  • Emer: a Celtic goddess of wisdom
  • Enyo: an ancient Greek war goddess who delighted in bloodshed and the destruction of whole communities
  • Epimeliades: the ancient Greek goddess who protected sheep flocks and goat herds
  • Erato: the ancient Greek muse of lyric poetry
  • Eris: an ancient Greek goddess said to spread discord and strife everywhere
9. Eris
  • Ermutu: an ancient Egyptian goddess of midwifery and childbirth
  • Ethausva: the Hittite goddess of midwifery and childbirth
  • Eunomia: the ancient Greek deity of order and lawful conduct
  • Eunostos: the ancient Greek goddess of flour mill workers
  • Euterpe: the ancient Greek muse of music
  • Eutychia: an ancient Greek goddess of good fortune
  • Ezinu: the Sumerian grain goddess
  • Fachea: an ancient Irish goddess of poetry and music
  • Fand: a Celtic goddess of happiness and pleasure
  • Faustitas: the divine Roman protectress of herds and other livestock
  • Febris: the Roman goddess who protected people from fever and malaria
  • Feronia: a Roman goddess associated with health
  • Flidas: an ancient Irish cattle goddess
  • Fortuna: the Roman goddess of good fortune
  • Frau Holle: the ancient Germanic goddess of spinning
  • Freya: a Germanic goddess of beauty, love, sex, fertility, and youth
  • Gabija: the Lithuanian goddess of the domestic hearth
  • Gabjauja: a Lithuanian corn goddess who was degraded to the figure of an evil demon by Christian priests
  • Gandhari: a Jain goddess of learning
  • Garmangabis: an ancient German goddess of prosperity
  • Gauri: the Hindu Indian goddess of marital happines and longevity
  • Giane: an ancient Sardinian goddess of spinning and weaving
  • Gefjon: the Norse goddess of agriculture
  • Genetaska: the Huron goddess of justice, fairness, and peace
  • Geshtinanna: a Sumerian goddess of agriculture
  • Grahamatrka: a benevolent Nepalese goddess described by Buddhist monks in neighboring Tibet as a ‘demon’ mother
  • Gratiae: Roman goddesses associated with the arts
  • Gwen: a Celtic goddess of happiness said to be so beautiful that anyone looking at her too long would die
  • Hami-Yasu-Hime: the Japanese goddess of potters
  • Hano: Bella a Coola teaching goddess
  • Hathor: early Egyptian cow-deity who ultimately came to be associated with beauty, romance, love, sexuality, fertility, procreation, childbirth, joy, infant care, sycamore trees, the sky, poetry, music, dance, alcohol, and death; often depicted as a cow, she was commonly depicted as a woman wearing a headdress of cow horns, between which sat the solar disk; from the first, she appears to have been one of the deities commonly invoked in private prayers and votive offerings by women wanting children; after gaining the patronage of Old Kingdom rulers, she became one of Egypt’s most important deities, with more temples erected to her than to any other female Egyptian deity; her royal patrons also helped to spread her worship to such foreign lands as Nubia and Canaan, where she became associated with their valuable incense, semiprecious stones, and other desirable goods; durng the New Kingdom, new deities such as Isis and Mut managed to encroach on her royal patronage, but although she increasingly became overshadowed by Isis, she remained one of the most widely worshipped deities and continued to be venerated especially by by women until the complete extinction of ancient Egyptian religion in early Christian times.
10. Hathor
  1. Hatshepsut: the ancient Egyptian goddess of justice
  2. Hecaerge: an ancient Greek goddess of archery
  3. Hestia: the ancient Greek goddess of the hearth
11. Hestia
  • Hi’aika: the Hawaaian goddess of the hula
  • Hoatziqui: an ancient Mexican goddess of justice
  • Holi: an Indian goddess of happiness and merriment
  • Horae: the ancient Greek goddesses of order
  • Hulda: an ancient German goddess of marriage and fecundity
  • Hsi-Lingh Shih: the Japanese goddess of silk weaving
  • Huitaca: the Muisca goddess of music, dance, and the arts
  • Hygieia: the ancient Greek goddess of cleanliness and sanitation
  • Ianuaria: a Celtic goddess associated with healing
  • Iarila: the Russian goddess who is said to lead the dancing at the summer solstice
  • Iaso: an ancient Greek goddess of cures and remedies
  • Ichpuchtli: the Aztec goddess of women, love, marriage, fertility, sex, flowers, music, the visual arts, spinning, weaving, and sacred prostitution
  • Ihi: the Tahitan goddess of learning and wisdom
  • Ilankaka: the Zaire war goddess
  • Ilithyia: the ancient Greek goddess of childbirth
  • Imo: an African goddess of justice
  • Inari Ōkami: the Japanese goddess of agriculture, sake, and industry
  • India Rosa: a Venezuelan goddess of weaving and pottery
  • Inemes: the Micronesian goddess of sexual desire
  • Inanna: ancient Mesopotamian deity associated with sex, war, and political power; originally worshiped as a deity of unrestrained sex in Sumer and later worshipped by the Akkadians, Babylonians and Assyrians under the name Ishtar, she was known throughout these lands as the Queen of Heaven and is the first known deity to have been associated with the planet Venus; her worship is known to go back at least six thousand years, but she appears to have had little in the way of an organized cult prior to the conquest of Sumer by Sargon of Akkad some thirty-five hundred years later, after which she suddenly became one of the most widely venerated deities in the Sumerian pantheon, with new temples rising all across Mesopotamia; eventually she would appear in more mythic tales than any other Sumerian deity, with many of them involving her taking over the domains of other deities; her cult, reportedly focusing on various sexual rites—possibly including ‘sacred marriages’ symbolized by the sexual acceptance of the king by her high priestess, thereby legitimizing his rule—was especially embraced by the Assyrians, who ultimately elevated her to become the highest deity in their own pantheon, ranking her above their national male deity; Inanna-Ishtar greatly influenced the development of the Phoenecian deity Astoreth, who later influenced that of the Greek goddess Aphrodite; her cult continued to flourish until its gradual decline in the wake of Christianity, although it survived among Assyrian communities in parts of old Upper Mesopotamia until as recently as the eighteenth century
12. Inanna
  • Is’ara: the Mesopotamian goddess of marriage and the enforcing of vows
  • Ishi-Kori-Dome: the Japanese goddess of stonecutters
  • Ishtar: the Babylonian goddess of sexual desire and war
  • Isis: ancient Egyptian deity associated with motherhood, child protection, healing, fate, magical powers, spells, mourning, death, and the ultimate overcoming of death; she’s most often represented as a beautiful woman wearing a sheath dress and a headdressGet out of here consisting of either the hieroglyphic sign of the throne or the solar disk between the horns of a cow, acquired during the last years of the New Kingdom when she dared to take on some of the traits actually belonging to Hathor—the preeminent deity of that era; initially an obscure goddess who lacked a temple of her own, her worship grew in importance as the Age of the old Egyptian kingdoms, with which she’d had some strong links, gave way to the dynastic Age of the Pharaohs; still, there are no references to her in the hieroglyphic record until the Sixth Dynasty, when she’s first mentioned in connection with magical texts and funerary practices as her priests and priestesses are suddenly granted limited roles in royal rituals and temple rites; eventually, she came to be regarded as the mother and divine protectress of the pharaoh, who her priests equated with her divine son Horus and accordingly taught that the pharaoh himself was to be considered divine; her first major temple was built shortly thereafter in the central Nile delta, where she eventually added the protection of seafarers to her divine domain; following the subjugation of Egypt by Greece and later Rome—by which time, having absorbed the more important traits of many other Egyptian deities, she had become the dominant female deity in the country—several more temples were erected to her, mainly in Alexandria; from which her growing cult expanded to Greece and Rome proper, while in the former, many of her new devotees came to accept her priests’ claim that she actually encompassed all the world’s divine powers, or at least those of the female variety, and twere satisfied enough to credit her with certain traits that had formerly been ascribed to their own Greek deities, such as the invention of marriage; in the end, her worship spread throughout the Roman Empire, until she was ultimately worshipped from England to Afghanistan, a trend that ended only with the rise of Christianity in that region during the fourth and fifth centuries of the Christian Era—notwithstanding that most scholars believe that at the very least, her worship influenced certain Christian beliefs and practices, such as the veneration of Mary, and that many so-called pagans, albeit mostly feminists, continue to worship her to this day
13. Isis
  • Istar: the Akkadian war goddess
  • Ix Chebel Yax: a Mayan goddess of spinning, weaving, and dyeing
  • Ix Kanan: Mayan goddess of the bean plant
  • Iyatiku: the Navajo corn goddess
  • Jacheongbi: the Korean goddess of agriculture
  • Jokwa: an Asian goddess of justice
  • Junda: the Lithuanian war goddess
  • Kadi: the Assyrian goddess of justice
  • Kaikara: a Ugandan goddess of agriculture
  • Kaldas: Russian cattle goddess
  • Kali: one of the Hindu goddesses who danced the universe into existence
  • Kamrusepa: the Hittite goddess of medicine and healing
  • Kamui-fuchi: the Ainu Japanese goddess of the domestic hearth
  • Kana-Yama-Hime-No-Kami: the Japanese goddess of miners
  • Kanene Ski Amai Yehi: the Cherokee goddess of weaving and pottery
  • Kanikanihia: Hawaiian deity of love and sex
  • Kankar Mata: a Hindu goddess who is believed by some people to spread disease, by others to be a benevolent mother deity
  • Kapo: the Hawaiian goddess of midwifery, childbirth, and abortion
  • Kaya Nu Hima: the Japanese herb goddess
  • Khadoma: a Tibetan goddess of knowledge
  • Khio: the Thai goddess of song
  • Kilya: the Incan goddess of marriage
  • Kiyo Hime: a Japanese goddess of justice
  • Klotes: an early Greek goddess of spinning
  • Kongde: a Chinese goddess of justice
  • Korawini: Paiute deity of sexuality
  • Kore: the ancient Greek corn goddess
  • Kornjunfer: an ancient Germanic grain goddess
  • Korravai: the Dravidian Indian war goddess
  • Kottavei: an Indian war goddess
  • Kshumai: a Kafir Afghanistan goddess said to have given people goats, grapes, various fruits, and vegetation in general; appears to them in the guise of a goat
  • Kubjika: the Hindu goddess of writing
  • Kulisankusa: a Jain Indian goddess of teaching
  • Lactura: an ancient Greek grain goddess
  • Lada: a Slavic goddess of love and happiness
  • Laka: the Polynesian goddess of song, dance, and sexual desire; invented the hula dance
  • Lakshmana temple: Hindu temples are devoid of religious imagery on the inside, which in order to provide for undistracted meditation, are left entirely empty, or as bare-walled and quiet as the amniotic sac of the womb in which all life begins—as Hindus themselves would often describe it. Rather, the images upon which the approaching visitor is encouraged to meditate are carved into the outside walls, as in the temple below dedicated to Lakshmi: the goddess who along with the god Vishnu are perceived as the divine pair whose Creative activity sustains not only the part of life that lies between the womb and the tomb, but indeed between the ultimate Creation—which Brahmanic Hindus attribute to the goddess Sarasvati and the god Brahma—and the ultimate Destruction, as attributed to Parvati and Shiva. Nor is Hinduism shy about explaining just what they mean by that term ‘Creative actvity’; because what one specifically finds celebrated in the carvings on Lakshmana Temple is sexual pleasure in all its passion, natural curiosity, and conceivable variety, as plainly pursued and enjoyed by the gods themselves since the dawn of time—else how might the world have even come into being, many Hindus will argue—and depicted in our next five photos.
14. Erotic wall-carvings
Lakshmana Temple, Khajuraho, India
15. Erotic carvings (detail)
Lakshmana Temple, Khajuraho, India
16. Erotic carvings (detail)
Lakshmana Temple, Khajuraho, India
17 Erotic carvings (detail)
Lakshmana Temple, Khajuraho, India
18. Erotic carvings (detail)
Lakshmana Temple, Khajuraho, India
  • Lakshmi: the Hindu goddess of love, beauty, the lotus blossom, wealth, and prosperity, to whom the temple above is consecrated.
19. Lakshmi
  • Lamaria: a Caucasus Region goddess of fertility, childbirth, and the hearth, as well as the protectress of women and children
  • Lauka Mate: the Latvian goddess of agriculture
  • Lei-zi: the Chinese goddess of silkworm breeding
  • Lennaxidaq: the Kwakiutl goddess of good luck and wealth
  • Liberalitas: the Roman goddess of generosity
  • Libitina: the Roman goddess of mortitians
  • Lina: an ancient Greek goddess of weaving
  • Linksmine: a Slavic goddess of good cheer
  • Lofn: a Norse deity of sex and illicit unions
  • Lomo: a Central African goddess of peace
  • Luamerava: an African goddess of sexual desire
  • Luaths Lurgann: a Celtic warrior goddess
  • Lug: an ancient Celtic goddess of crafts
  • Lulong: Borneo deity of sex
  • Ma Kiela: a South African goddess of fabric dyeing
  • Maat: the ancient Egyptian goddess of justice
20. Maat
  • Macha: an ancient Irish warrior goddess
  • Madb: a Celtic war goddess
  • Mahakali: a Jain Indian goddess of learning
  • Mahaskti: an Indian war goddess
  • Mama Occlo: the Incan goddess who taught people how to spin thread, sew, and build better houses
  • Manasha: the Hindu goddess of mind and intelligence
  • Manavi: a Jain Indian goddess of learning
  • Marcia Proba: a Celtic goddess of justice and war
  • Marica: the Etruscan goddess of agriculture
  • Mariana: a Brazilian deity of sex
  • Marishi Ten: the Japanese war goddess
  • Matergabiae: the Lithuanian goddess of the domestic hearth
  • Mati syra zemlya: a Slavic goddess of justice
  • Matronae: three Celtic mother-goddesses who desire peace and tranquillity for their children
21. Matronae
  • Mbaba Mwana Waresa: the Zulu goddess of agriculture
  • Medb: a Celtic war goddess
  • Medeha: the Mahayana Buddhist goddess of wisdom
  • Menchit: an ancient Egyptian war goddess
  • Meng Po: a Chinese goddess of justice
  • Messia: the Roman goddess of the harvest
  • Metis: the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom
  • Minerva: a Roman goddess associated with learning, the arts, science, medicine, trade, handicrafts, dyeing, industry, commerce, and education
22. Minerva
  • Minona: the Fon African teaching goddess
  • Mirume: a Japanese goddess of justice
  • Mokos: the Slavic goddess of shearing, spinning, and weaving
  • Morgay: the ancient British goddess of agriculture
  • Muraja: the Buddhist goddess of music, special patroness of the tambourine
  • Muso Koroni Bambara: a West African goddess whose veneration has been severely repressed by Islam; today demoted to a witch, she’s currently held to be the ‘mother of chaos’, whose dangerously defiant spirit needs to be carefully controlled lest she manage to re-create disorder in the region
  • Myrmex: the ancient Greek goddess of weaving
  • Nakiwulo: an African goddess of justice
  • Nambi: the Masai goddess of sexual desire
  • Nanaja: a Mesopotamian war goddess
  • Nanaya: a Mesopotamian deity of voluptuousness and sensuality
  • Nanse: the Babylonian goddess of social justice who turned no one away as long as they were worthy of her help: special deity of widows, orphans and the poor
  • Neit: an ancient Egyptian goddess of weaving, crafts
  • Neith: the ancient Egyptian goddess of women, the home, spinning, weaving, hunting, and war
  • Nephthys: an ancient Egyptian war goddess
  • Nepit: the ancient Egyptian grain goddess
  • Nike: the ancient Greek/Roman goddess of victory
23. Nike
  • Nikkal: the Canaanite orchard goddess
  • Nin-Imma: a Mesopotamian goddess representing the female sex organs
  • Ninbarsegunu: a Mesopotamian barley goddess
  • Ninkasi: the Sumerian goddess of brewing
  • Ninlil: the Mesopotamian grain goddess
  • Ninshubur: a Sumerian goddess of wisdom and knowledge
  • Ninsuna: a Mesopotamian cow goddess
  • Nintinugga: a Mesopotamian goddess of healing
  • Nu She: the Chinese goddess of literacy
  • Nungui: the Jivaro Peruvian mantioc goddess
  • Nyamwezi: an African goddess of justice
  • Oboto: an African goddess of serenity
  • Oki-Tsu-Hime-No-Kami: the Japanese goddess of the kitche
  • Olwen: an ancient Welsh war goddess
  • Ops: a Roman goddess of the harvest
  • Oya: a West Indian war goddess
  • P’an Chin Lien: Chinese deity of prostitution, brothels, and drunken orgies
  • Pacis: the Roman peace goddess and the altar that was specially dedicated to her
24. Pacis
  • Pagoda: a Slavic goddess of agriculture
  • Paivatar: a Finnish goddess of weaving and spinning
  • Pakhet: an ancient Egyptian war goddess
  • Panacea: ancient Greek goddess who cured with medicines and salves
  • Pang Che: a Chinese goddess of justice
  • Papalluga: the Serbian goddess of spinning
  • Penelope: an ancient Greek goddess of weaving
  • Phosop: the Thai rice goddess
  • Pietas: the Roman goddess of piety and duty to the state and family
  • Pinga: an Inuit goddess associated with medicine
  • Polyboulus: an ancient Greek goddess of wisdom
  • Polyhymnia: the ancient Greek muse of sacred poetry
  • Pomona: the Roman orchard goddess
25. Pomona
  • Poza Mama: a Siberian goddess of the domestic hearth
  • Prajnapti: a Jain Indian goddess whose name means ‘teaching’
  • Praxadike: the Roman goddess of private enterprise
  • Proserpina: the Roman goddess of seed germination
  • Pukkeenegak: the Inuit goddess of the domestic hearth
  • Puta: the Roman goddess responsible for the proper pruning of fruit trees
  • Qadshu: a Syrian goddess of fertility and sexuality
  • Qamaits: the Bella Coola war goddess
  • Quinuamama: the Incan grain goddess
  • Rachmā: the Canaanite goddess of healing and nursing
  • Rati: a Hindu goddess of sexual desire
  • Ratnolka: a Buddhist goddess of light and literature
  • Re’are’a: the Tahitian goddess of happiness
  • Renenutet: the ancient Egyptian harvest goddess
  • Riri-tuna-rai: the Easter Island coconut goddess
  • Rohini: a Jain Indian goddess of learning
  • Rua: Tahitian goddess of crafts
  • Ruana Nieda: the Saami Finnland goddess of weaving
  • Rumina: the Roman goddess who protected breastfeeding mothers and their nursing infants
  • Sakhemet: an Egyptian war goddess
  • Sala: a Mesopotamian war goddess
  • Sala: the Hittite agriculture goddess
  • Saning Sari: the Javanese rice goddess
  • Sanju: Kafir a Afghanistan harvest goddess
  • Saptamatara: group of seven mother-goddesses who were exalted in early Hindu texts, but later, under male influence, reduced to figures of evil intent whom children should fear
  • Saraddevi: the Tibetan Buddhist harvest goddess
  • Sarasvati: the Hindu goddess of music and the arts
26. Sarasvati
  • Sauska: the Hittite war goddess
  • Secia: the Roman seed storage goddess
  • Sefkhet-Abwy: the ancient Egyptian goddess of writing and libraries
  • Segetia: the Roman goddess invoked at seeding time
  • Sekhet-Hor: an ancient Egyptian cow goddess
  • Sekhmet: an ancient Egyptian goddess associated with war, medicine, and healing
  • Selu: the Cherokee corn goddess
  • Semonia: the Roman goddess of planting
  • Serket: the ancient Egyptian goddess specially associated with healing bites and stings
  • Seshat: the ancient Egyptian goddess of mathematics, measuring, and architecture
  • Shapash: an Ugarit war goddess
  • Shapshu: a Canaanite war goddess
  • Sheela Na Gig: primordial Celtic Mother; one of the rare Celtic goddesses whose imagery in Ireland and elsewhere has survived into the Christian era, her depiction as a naked woman with her legs spread wide while she openly displays her vagina still adorns the outside walls of many old Irish Catholic churches, as indicated by the samples and map below.
27. Sheela Na Gig carvings, Ireland
Locations of Irish churches with depictions of Sheela Na Gig
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-northern-ireland-39705545
  • Si: a Slavic goddess of justice
  • Sien Tsang: the Chinese goddess of silk cultivation
  • Sif: an ancient Germanic corn goddess
  • Silewe Nazarata: an Indonesian goddess of understanding and wisdom
  • Sirona: a Celtic goddess associated with healing
  • Sirtur: a Mesopotamian sheep goddess
  • Snotra: the Norse goddess of knowledge and wisdom
  • Sophia: the Roman goddess of wisdom
28. Sophia
  • Spermo: an ancient Greek grain goddess
  • Sreca: the Serbian goddess of spinning
  • Suklang Malayon: a divine Philippine protectress of happy homes
  • Sulmanitu: a Semitic war goddess
  • Svasti: a Hindu goddess of the home
  • Sweigsdunka: the Lithuanian goddess of weaving
  • Syn: a Norse goddess of justice
  • Tagabayan: a Philippine goddess of marital fidelity
  • Tahc I: Tunician goddess of war
  • Tahuti: an ancient Egyptian goddess of knowledge and education
  • Taillte: ancient Irish goddess associated with the wheat harvest
  • Taka rita: a Polynesian goddess of adultery
  • Tama-No-Ya: the Shinto Japanese goddess of jewelers
  • Tamiyo: the Japanese abundance of food goddess
  • Tan ma: a Tibetan goddess of health and medicine
  • Tanaquil: a Roman goddess of justice
  • Tang: a Chinese goddess of justice and mercy
  • Taoki-Ho-Oi-No-Kami: a Chinese goddess of carpenters
  • Tatsuta-Hime: a Japanese goddess of weaving
  • Taweret: an ancient Egyptian goddess who oversaw childbirth
  • Tayet: the ancient Egyptian goddess of spinning and weaving
  • Te mehara: a Polynesian goddess of learning
  • Teicu: Aztec deity of sexual appetite
  • Tenga: an African goddess of justice
  • Tenye Te’en: the Nigerian goddess of marital fidelity
  • Terpsichore: the ancient Greek muse of dance
  • Thalia: the ancient Greek muse of comedy
  • Themis: the ancient Greek goddess of order
29. Themis
  • Thermuthis: an ancient Egyptian harvest goddess
  • Thmei: the ancient Egyptian goddess of truth
  • Thoeris: the ancient Egyptian goddess who protected women in childbirth
  • Tie: the ancient Egyptian goddess of intelligence and wisdom
  • Tlaco: Aztec deity of sexual longing
  • Tlanzolteotl: Aztec deity of carnality, lust, and sexual misdeeds; patroness of adulterers
  • Tlitcaplitana: the Bella Coola goddess of singing and chanting
  • Tonantzin: the Aztec goddess of motherhood
  • Toyouke-Ōmikami: the Japanese agriculture goddess
  • Tranquillitas Vacuna: the Roman goddess who presided over doing absolutely nothing
  • Ts’an Nu: a Chinese goddess of the silkworm
  • Tsho gyalma: a Tibetan goddess of happiness
  • Tsi: a Siberian goddess of justice
  • Tsilah: a Hatian goddess of beauty and good fortune
  • Tui: a Chinese goddess of happiness
  • Tunehakwe: an Onondaga crop goddess
  • Tutelina: a Roman harvest goddess
  • Tzu Sun Niang Niang: the Chinese goddess of childbirth
  • Uathach: a Scottish goddess who trained warriors
  • Ukat: an Indian goddess of good luck
  • Uke Mochi: a Japanese goddess of food who prepares a feast by standing in the ocean and spewing out plentiful fish, facing the forest and spewing out bountiful game, and finally turning to a rice paddy and spewing out that grain
  • Uks Akka: a Swedish goddess of midwifery who also looks after newborn babies
  • Unchi-Ahchi: the Japanese goddess of the domestic hearth; name means ‘grandmother hearth’
  • Urjani: a Hindu goddess of physical prowess and strength
  • Ururupuin: a Micronesian goddess of flirting, happiness, and playfulness
  • Uso Dori: a Japanese goddess of singing
  • Utlunta: the Cherokee goddess of physical prowess and strength
  • Uttara Palgun: a Hindu healing goddess
  • Uttarabhadrapada: a Hindu goddess of fortune b
  • Uttu: the Sumerian goddess of weaving and clothing
  • Vac: a Hidu goddess of language, writing, and writing systems
  • Vairotya: a Jain goddess of learning
  • Valetudo:
  • Var: a Norse goddess of marital vows
  • Varuni: an early Hindu goddess of pure spring water, under male influence she has mainly become associated with liquor and intoxication
  • Vasanta: a Hindu goddess of learning, music, and poetry
  • Vasumatisri: a Mahayana Buddhist goddess whose name ‘beautiful with an excellent mind’
  • Venus: originally, a Roman goddess of flower gardens and vinyards
  • Verplaca: the Roman goddess of family harmony
  • Vesta: the Roman goddess of both the sacred Temple Fire and domestic hearths
30. Vesta
  • Vidyadevi: generic title for a group of sixteen Jain goddesses associated with knowledge & learning
  • Vina: the Buddhist goddess of music
  • Viradechthis: a Scottish goddess of divine protection
  • Virilis: the Roman goddess who tended to the fortunes of men
  • Viriplaca: the Roman goddess who restored peace between married people
  • Volumna: a Roman goddess of the nursery
  • Voluptasx: the Roman goddess of sensual pleasure
  • Vor: the Norse goddess of betrothals and marriages
  • Waka-Sa-Na-Me-No-Kami: the Japanese rice goddess
  • Wakahirume: a Japanese goddess specializing in needle-craft and weaving
  • Walo: an aboriginal Australian war goddess
  • Wardi Mumi: the Ugric Finnish war goddess
  • Warrta: a Hindu goddess of happiness
  • Whope: the Lakota peace goddess who gave the Siouxan people the peace pipe
  • Widapokwi: the Yavapai goddess of health
  • Wilden Wip: ancient Germanic goddess of healing
  • Wopeh: the Lakota goddess of pleasure and happiness
  • Xatel Ekwa: the Hungarian war goddess
  • Xi Shi: Chinese goddess of beauty aids
  • Xilonen: the Aztec maize goddess
31. Xilonen
  • Xiuhtecuhtli: the Aztec goddess of dancing
  • Xochiquetzal: the Aztec goddess of sex, sensual pleasure, flowers, agriculture, weaving, and embroidering
  • Xoli Kaltes: the Hungarian goddess of warriors
  • Xtabay: a Maya goddessof seduction
  • Yampan: the Aguaruna Brazilian agriculture goddess
  • Yang Chen: a Buddhist goddess of teaching and learning
  • Yanguang Pusa: a Chinese goddess of healing, specializing in eye problems
  • Yaparamma: the Indian goddess of commerce
  • Yebaad: leader of the Navajo goddesses
  • Yemanja: patron goddess of pregnant women in Yoruba
  • Yen Kuang Niang Niang: Chinese goddess who cures opthamalia
  • Yingxi Niang: the Chinese goddess of happiness
  • Ynakhsyt: the Yakut Siberian cattle goddess
  • Yolkai Estsan: the Navajo goddess of war
  • Yuki Onne: Japanese goddess of death by freezing
  • Zapotlantenan: a Mesoamerican healing goddess
  • Zaramama: the Incan grain goddess
  • Zaria: a Slavic goddess of beauty and love
  • Zarpanitu: a Mesopotamian goddess of chilbirth
  • Zemyna: the Lithuanian goddess responsible for all vegetation and crops; invoked at both sowing and harvest time
  • Zhiwud: a Kafir Afghanistan messenger goddess
  • Zipanu: an Etruscan goddess of beauty and love
  • Ziva: an Etruscan goddess of long life
  • Zizilia: the Polish goddess of sexual desire
  • Żywie: a Slavic goddess of health and healing

_________________________

Sources

http://godfinder.org/index.html?q=commerce

https://www.unrv.com/culture/major-roman-god-list.php

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_health_deities

Photo Credits

1: MyGod Pictures https://www.mygodpictures.com/marble-statue-of-ama-no-uzume/

2: Circle of Ancient Iranian Study https://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Religions/iranian/anahita.htm

3: Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/pin/482870391284684597/

4: Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/pin/339740365631683638/

5: Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/graymooncat/goddess-bastet/

6: Britannica https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ceres-Roman-goddess

7: Holladay Paganism http://www.holladaypaganism.com/goddesses/cyclopedia/c/CYBELE.HTM

8: Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/lunad19/goddess-diana/

9: Pinterest https://in.pinterest.com/pin/353040058262056825/

10: Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/pin/367254544597078861/

11: World History https://www.worldhistoryedu.com/hestia-myths-origins-symbols/

12: Sun Signs https://www.sunsigns.org/god-and-goddess-symbol-meanings-inanna/

13: Encyclopedia Britannica https://www.britannica.com/topic/Isis-Egyptian-goddess

14: South China Morning Post https://www.scmp.com/magazines/post-magazine/article/1852971/theres-more-madhya-pradesh-khajurahos-erotic-sculptures

15: Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/pin/326933254190748670/?nic_v1=1bUlP3KMfOIz%2BDDqirew9rVC7Pp3jEzOI1EQ7LrqE0E9rfkBhYETpo2EYHGp%2BCo0ss

16: Wikipedia Commons https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2_Erotic_Kama_statues_of_Khajuraho_Hindu_Temple_de_Lakshmana_Khajur%C3%A2ho_India_2013.jpg

17: Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/pin/602708362614697712/?nic_v1=1bkMXQ78ScCGLgg6cwXs5tLVsfcUf%2B%2FKZ02k1mrKgURfbMe8dFRgbt3rhpM5%2BrAfbj

18: Shutterstock https://www.shutterstock.com/search/similar/1037975497

19 : Pinterest https://in.pinterest.com/pin/731412795707579874/

20: World History https://www.worldhistoryedu.com/maat-the-egyptian-goddess-of-truth-law-order/

21: Wikipedia https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matres_and_Matronae

22: Stockfresh https://stockfresh.com/image/2858205/ancient-minerva-statue-roman-goddess-capitoline-museum-rome-ital

23: Etsy https://www.etsy.com/au/listing/652951047/nike-of-samothrace-greek-goddess-statue

24: Britannica https://www.britannica.com/topic/Pax-Roman-religion

25: Eutouring https://www.eutouring.com/images_paris_statues_478.html

26: Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/pin/111534528250230833/

27: Upper left: Beyond the Pale http://www.beyond-the-pale.org.uk/list.htmUpper right: Turkagram https://turkagram.com/en/this-is-a-sheela-na-gig-a-medieval-stone-carving-12th-century/Lower left: Turkagram https://turkagram.com/en/this-is-a-sheela-na-gig Lower right: Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/pin/532058143468956120/?nic_v1=1bux%2FnnvfQizZTh9ZOWxOcEWk30jpEjTbRqkBiM7k8cmEutxIZBODWLAr76mg%2F9PAk

28: Atlas Obscura https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/statue-of-sveta-sofia

29: Wikipedia https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Themis_of_Rhamnous

30: Yandex https://yandex.com/showcaptcha?retpath=https%3A//yandex.com/collections/user/wikids/boginia-vesta%3F_b25d084277fcf0a4811a1f69c1b7f3a7&t=0/1596936017/20ac79c23c5403d22a8728b237d7fa36&s=653fabd665f6ee58d5d72435dd0286fd

31: Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/pin/354799276865436839/

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